The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulatory authority in India established under Section 3 of SEBI Act, 1992. It provides SEBI with statutory powers for protecting the interests of investors in securities, promoting the development of the securities market and regulating the securities market.
Its regulatory jurisdiction extends over organisations in the issuance of capital and transfer of securities, in addition to all intermediaries and persons associated with securities market. It has been obligated to perform the aforesaid functions by such measures as it thinks fit. To be specific, it has powers as below :
An Initial Public Offer or IPO is the first sale of a company’s shares to investors on a public stock exchange. While IPOs are effective at raising capital, being listed on a stock exchange imposes regulatory compliance and reporting requirements.
When a shareholder sells shares it is called a “secondary offering” and the shareholder, not the company who originally issued the shares, retains the proceeds of the offering. To avoid confusion, it is imporatnt to remember that only a company which issues shares can make a “primary offering”. Secondary offerings occur on the “secondary market”, where shareholders (not the issuing company) buy and sell shares to each other.
There are two types of IPOs. These are listed below :
Primary Market refers to a market which provides the channel for creation and sale of securities. Primary market provides an opportunity to investors to apply & own stocks issued by the corporate (as well as the government) through an IPO (Initial Public Offer). A corporate raises capital from the public to meet its expansion plans or discharge financial obligations.
The resources in this kind of market are mobilized either through the public issue in which anyone can subscribe for it, or through the private placement route in which the issue is made available only to a selected group of subscribers such as banks, FIs, MFs and high net worth individuals. In private placement, the stringent public disclosure regulations and registration requirements are relaxed since these securities are allotted to a few sophisticated and experienced investors,. The Companies Act, 1956, states that an offer of securities to more than 50 persons is deemed to be public issue.
Secondary Market refers to a market where shares are traded after being initially offered to the public in the primary market. It is a market in which an investor purchases shares from another investor through stock exchange. Majority of the stock trading is done in the secondary market. The secondary market enables participants who hold securities to adjust their holdings in response to changes in their assessment of risk and return. They also sell securities for cash to meet their liquidity needs.
We will soon be starting the facility of online IPO application which will enable you to enjoy a hassle-free experience with no botheration to fill tedious, lengthy forms, no requirement to sign cheques or physically deliver the form to the collection centre.
Currently, to apply for an IPO, you can collect the IPO Application Form directly from your nearest Vishesh Capital branch. To get a list of our branches, please Click here.
IPO or 'New Issues’ are a source of great enthusiasm and excitement among investors across the country. We at Vishesh Capital , try to provide you with complete ease and convenience in completing the IPO application process. Services relevant to the IPO market which we provide to investors are as follows :
Derivatives are financial contracts, which derive their value off a spot price time-series, which is called "the underlying". The underlying asset can be equity, index, commodity or any other asset. Some common examples of derivatives are Forwards, Futures, Options and Swaps.
Derivatives help to improve market efficiencies because risks can be isolated and sold to those who are willing to accept them at the least cost. Using derivatives breaks risk into pieces that can be managed independently. From a market-oriented perspective, derivatives offer the free trading of financial risks.
There are a wide variety of Mutual Fund schemes that cater to your needs, whatever your age, financial position, risk tolerance and return expectations. Whether as the foundation of your investment program or as a supplement, Mutual Fund schemes can help you meet your financial goals.
These do not have a fixed maturity. You deal directly with the Mutual Fund for your investments and redemptions. The key feature is liquidity. You can conveniently buy and sell your units at net asset value ("NAV") related prices.
Schemes that have a stipulated maturity period (ranging from 2 to 15 years) are called close-ended schemes. You can invest directly in the scheme at the time of the initial issue and thereafter you can buy or sell the units of the scheme on the stock exchanges where they are listed. The market price at the stock exchange could vary from the scheme's NAV on account of demand and supply situation, unitholders' expectations and other market factors. One of the characteristics of the close-ended schemes is that they are generally traded at a discount to NAV; but closer to maturity, the discount narrows. Some close-ended schemes give you an additional option of selling your units directly to the Mutual Fund through periodic repurchase at NAV related prices. SEBI Regulations ensure that at least one of the two exit routes are provided to the investor.
These combine the features of open-ended and close- ended schemes. They may be traded on the stock exchange or may be open for sale or redemption during pre-determined intervals at NAV related prices.
B) By Investment Objective
Aim to provide capital appreciation over the medium to long term. These schemes normally invest a majority of their funds in equities and are willing to bear short- term decline in value for possible future appreciation. These schemes are not for investors seeking regular income or needing their money back in the short-term. Ideal for:
Aim to provide regular and steady income to investors. These schemes generally invest in fixed income securities such as bonds and corporate debentures. Capital appreciation in such schemes may be limited. Ideal for:
Aim to provide both growth and income by periodically distributing a part of the income and capital gains they earn. They invest in both shares and fixed income securities in the proportion indicated in their offer documents. In a rising stock market, the NAV of these schemes may not normally keep pace, or fall equally when the market falls. Ideal for:
Money Market Schemes
Aim to provide easy liquidity, preservation of capital and moderate income. These schemes generally invest in safer, short-term instruments, such as treasury bills, certificates of deposit, commercial paper and inter- bank call money. Returns on these schemes may fluctuate, depending upon the interest rates prevailing in the market. Ideal for:
Tax Saving Schemes
These schemes offer tax rebates to the investors under tax laws as prescribed from time to time. This is made possible because the Government offers tax incentives for investment in specified avenues. For example, Equity Linked Savings Schemes (ELSS) and Pension Schemes. Recent amendments to the Income Tax Act provide further opportunities to investors to save capital gains by investing in Mutual Funds. The details of such tax savings are provided in the relevant offer documents. Ideal for:
This category includes index schemes that attempt to replicate the performance of a particular index such as the BSE Sensex or the NSE 50, or industry specific schemes (which invest in specific industries) or sectoral schemes (which invest exclusively in segments such as 'A' Group shares or initial public offerings). Index fund schemes are ideal for investors who are satisfied with a return approximately equal to that of an index. Sectoral fund schemes are ideal for investors who have already decided to invest in a particular sector or segment. Keep in mind that any one scheme may not meet all your requirements for all time. You need to place your money judiciously in different schemes to be able to get the combination of growth, income and stability that is right for you. Remember, as always, higher the return you seek higher the risk you should be prepared to take. A few frequently used terms are explained here below:
Net Asset Value ("NAV")
Net Asset Value is the market value of the assets of the scheme minus its liabilities. The per unit NAV is the net asset value of the scheme divided by the number of units outstanding on the Valuation Date.
Sale Price Is the price you pay when you invest in a scheme. Also called Offer Price. It may include a sales load.
Repurchase Price Is the price at which a close-ended scheme repurchases its units and it may include a back-end load. This is also called Bid Price.
Redemption Price Is the price at which open-ended schemes repurchase their units and close-ended schemes redeem their units on maturity. Such prices are NAV related.
Sales Load Is a charge collected by a scheme when it sells the units. Also called, 'Front-end' load. Schemes that do not charge a load are called 'No Load' schemes.
Repurchase or 'Back-end' Load Is a charge collected by a scheme when it buys back the units from the unit holders.
The advantages of investing in a Mutual Fund are:
How To Invest In Mutual Funds?
Step One - Identify your investment needs.
Your financial goals will vary, based on your age, lifestyle, financial independence, family commitments, level of income and expenses among many other factors. Therefore, the first step is to assess your needs. Begin by asking yourself these questions:
Step Two - Choose the right Mutual Fund.
Once you have a clear strategy in mind, you now have to choose which Mutual Fund and scheme you want to invest in. The offer document of the scheme tells you its objectives and provides supplementary details like the track record of other schemes managed by the same Fund Manager. Some factors to evaluate before choosing a particular Mutual Fund are:
Step Three - Select the ideal mix of Schemes
Investing in just one Mutual Fund scheme may not meet all your investment needs. You may consider investing in a combination of schemes to achieve your specific goals. The charts could prove useful in selecting a combination of schemes that satisfy your needs
Step four - Invest regularly
For most of us, the approach that works best is to invest a fixed amount at specific intervals, say every month. By investing a fixed sum each month, you buy fewer units when the price is higher and more units when the price is low, thus bringing down your average cost per unit. This is called rupee cost averaging and is a disciplined investment strategy followed by investors all over the world. With many open-ended schemes offering systematic investment plans, this regular investing habit is made easy for you.
Step Five - Keep your taxes in mind
If you are in a high tax bracket and have utilized fully the exemptions under Section 80L of the Income Tax Act, investing in growth funds that do not pay dividends might be more tax efficient and improve your post-tax return. If you are in a low tax bracket and have not utilized fully the exemption available under Section 80L, selecting funds paying regular income could be more tax efficient. Further, there are other benefits available for investment in Mutual Funds under the provisions of the prevailing tax laws. You may therefore consult your tax advisor or Chartered Accountant for specific advice.
Step Six - Start early
It is desirable to start investing early and stick to a regular investment plan. If you start now, you will make more than if you wait and invest later. The power of compounding lets you earn income on income and your money multiplies at a compounded rate of return.
Step Seven - The final step
All you need to do now is to get in touch with a Mutual Fund or your agent/broker and start investing. Reap the rewards in the years to come. Mutual Funds are suitable for every kind of investor-whether starting a career or retiring, conservative or risk taking, growth oriented or income seeking.
As a unit holder in a Mutual Fund scheme coming under the SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations, ("Regulations") you are entitled to:
Currency Futures traded on BSE-CDX
The Foreign Exchange Management Act is the law which regulates the Forex market. The regulatory authority for the Indian Forex market is the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). However, the Exchange Traded Currency Futures market is regulated by SEBI through the recognized stock exchanges.
The period beginning 1993, when the Indian Rupee moved away from an administered exchange rate, was a period of low currency volatility. This was followed by a period of high volatility during the Asian crisis after which the period again witnessed low volatility, followed yet again by a high volatility period.
Except FIIs and NRIs, every individual/corporate/institution/bank etc. is allowed to trade in the Currency Futures market.
To begin with, only US Dollar ($) futures is being traded against the Indian Rupee (INR). The contract for say the month of September will be called USDSEP2008.
There are 12 near calendar months contract available for trading along with spread contracts for every combination.
You do not need to own the underlying currency when you enter into a futures contract. The contract simply represents a commitment to either sell or buy the asset on the set expiry date.
The Currency Futures contract would expire on the last working day (excluding Saturdays and FEDAI holidays) of the month.
A depository is an organization where the securities of an investor are held in electronic form. A depository can be compared to a bank. To avail of the services of a depository, an investor has to open an account with the Depository through a depository participant, just as he opens an account with the bank. Holding shares in the account is akin to holding money in the bank.
As an investor you will enjoy many benefits if you buy and sell shares in the depository mode. The following are some of the benefits you will enjoy: -
At present, India has only two depositories—National Securities Depository Ltd (NSDL) and Central Depository Services Ltd (CDSL). NSDL is the first depository to have started in India, whereas CDSL followed them. However, most of the services offered by both these depositories are similar. Today almost all the companies listed in dematerialized form with NSDL are available with CDSL.
A Depository Participant (DP) is an agent appointed by the Depository and is authorized to offer depository services to all investors. An investor cannot directly open a demat account with the depository. An investor has to open his account through a DP only. The DP in turn opens the account with the Depository. The DP in turn takes up the responsibility of maintaining the account and updating them as per the instructions given by the investor from time to time. The DP generates and provides the holdings statement from time to time as required by the investor. Thus, the DP is basically the interface between the investor and the Depository.
Example- Motilal Oswal’s Modes is a DP of both Depositories (NSDL as well as CDSL.). For the purpose of Internet Trading, you will have to open a demat account with Motilal Oswal, who is authorized to offer you this service. We will be opening your demat account with CDSL. The balances in your account are maintained with the depository and are available to you through us. You can find the status of your holdings or transactions from time to time.
The person who holds a demat account is a beneficiary owner. In case of a joint account, the account holders will be beneficiary holders of that joint account.
The demat account number of the beneficiary holder(s) is known as the BO Id.
A DP Id is the number of the depository participant allotted by the depository.
An Indian Citizen who stays abroad for employment/carrying on business or vocation outside India or stays abroad under circumstances indicating an intention for an uncertain duration of stay abroad is a non-resident. (Persons posted in U.N. organizations and officials deputed abroad by Central/State Governments and Public Sector undertakings on temporary assignments are also treated as non-residents). Non-resident foreign citizens of Indian Origin are treated on par with non-resident Indian citizens (NRIs) for the purpose of certain facilities.
Overseas Corporate Bodies (OCBs) are bodies predominantly owned by individuals of Indian nationality or origin resident outside India and include overseas companies, partnership firms, societies and other corporate bodies which are owned, directly or indirectly, to the extent of at least 60% by individuals of Indian nationality or origin resident outside India as also overseas trusts in which at least 60% of the beneficial interest is irrevocably held by such persons. Such ownership interest should be actually held by them and not in te capacity as nominees. The various facilities granted to NRIs are also available with certain exceptions to OCBs so long as the ownership/beneficial interest held in them by NRIs continues to be at least 60%
NRIs/OCBs are granted the following facilities:
NRIs are permitted to make direct investments in proprietary/partnership concerns in India as also in shares/debentures of Indian companies. They are also permitted to make portfolio investments i.e. purchase of shares/debentures of shares/debentures of Indian companies. They are also permitted to make portfolio investments i.e. purchase of shares/debentures of Indian companies through stock exchanges in India. These facilities are granted both on repatriation and non repatriation basis.
No. Reserve Bank has granted general permission to non- resident individuals of Indian nationality/origin to invest by way of capital contribution in any proprietary or partnership concern in India on non- repatriation basis provided the investee concern is not engaged in any agricultural/plantation activity or real estate business. This facility is, however, not available to OCBs.
shares/convertible debentures by way of new/rights/bonus issue provided the investee company is not engaged in agricultural /plantation activity or real estate business(excluding real estate development i.e. development of property and construction of houses).
No. However, the firms/companies concerned are required to file declarations with Reserve Bank in form DIN giving particulars of the investments made. Within ninety days from the date of the investment.
OCBs can make such investments only in domestic public/ private sector Mutual Funds. They can also make investments in Money Market Mutual Funds.
Yes. Applications for necessary permission should be made to Reserve Bank (Central Office) by the concerned Indian Company in form ISD.
Yes. Reserve Bank permits NRIs on application in form FNC 7, to purchase shares/debentures of existing Indian companies on non-repatriation basis. An undertaking about non-repatriation is to be given in form NRU.
No. Reserve Bank has granted general permission to companies in India to enter the overseas addresses of the shareholders in their books in such cases provided the companies obtain undertakings from the holders that they will not seek repatriation of any income or sale proceeds of the security.